Thursday 3 November 2011

Contoh Proposal Skripsi Linguistics

(An Analysis of Types and Reasons of Code Switching Written By the 8th Semester Students of English Department)

Ani Yulianti

A.    Background
For Indonesian, or maybe others people around the world who have not English as their mother language, may use English as their second or third language. This is because English was claimed as international language that must be understood by everybody who has connected with other people who have different language. Because of the three-pronged development – of first-language, second-language, and foreign-language speakers – it is inevitable that a global language will eventually come to be used by more people than any other language. English has already reached this stage (Crystal, 2003: 6). When someone goes somewhere abroad, they need English skill to communicate with the other. And when they came back to their country, some of them are getting easier to talk by English than their own language. In this case, there is may somebody who can’t speak English very well, so the speaker have to speak their original language. Here, sometimes code switching are happen.
The development of technolgy is getting higher day by day and year by year. People are also getting easier to use technology for communication. Either to communicate with someone in local place who have the same language with us or with one in very far away with different language who never been met before.  Getting communication seems be easier than the past, and today, there are so many communication media that support us to make a practice communication either with the people near us or with someone in far distance. It is such as letters, facsimile, phone, internet media, and so on.
Facebook is such a social networking that has the largest member in the world. Facebook is a social networking service and website launched in February 2004, operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc. As of July 2011, Facebook has more than 750 million active users (Wikipedia, 2011: 17th of July). Mark Zuckenberg, the founder, ever wants to close this site because it has too much member and caused some criminal on world. According to Wikipedia (2011: 17th of July), “Facebook has met with controversies. It has been blocked intermittently in several countries including the People's Republic of China, Vietnam, Iran, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Syria, and Bangladesh on different bases.” But beside there is a negative effect of facebook, there is sure also a positive effect of facebook, one of them is connecting people over the world.
The students of English department who learn English deeply are also exist on facebook. They learn English on their daily lecture day, so they surely may influenced by English on their own conversation. There are so much statuses, notes or comments on facebook containing English written by the students of English Department. They often switch their Bahasa Indonesia into English. This kind of situation may be called as code switching.
Language switching can actually happen only in the language of a bilingual. Bilingualism is the term for speaking one or more languages (Scotton, 2006: 2). In line with that explanation, the students of English Department can be considered as bilingual because they should have ability to speak English since they entered the department. The language situation in Indonesia is considered higher than the local languages and English is considered higher in prestige and social status than Bahasa Indonesia (Syafi’ie, 1981: 40). Therefore, English Department Students are likely to do code switching in their communication with others.
Subahanallah...... yang namanya orang tua mah always pray for all of you. We hope all of you be success. That's way, belajarlah seriously.” That is the example of code switcing written by a student of  English Department on facebook comments. We can find other much example of sentence like that doing by them because they as bilungual students have their own way to communicate with each other. We can defined it to the rare phenomenon. By switching the language like they do, some people may not understand what they are talking about. Some may be know that its including to linguistics phenomenon. Some may be understand about code switcing, code mixing, interference, and many other. But, the general people even the students of English Departmen may do not know how to different between Code Mixing, Code Switcing and interference. According to Chaer on his book Sosiolinguistik Perkenalan Awal (2004: 114), Pembicaraan mengenai alih kode biasanya diikuti dengan pembicaraan mengenai campur kode. Kedua peristiwa yang lazim terjadi di masyarakat bilingual ini mempunyai kesamaan yang besar, sehingga seringkali sukar dibedakan.”
The similiarity of code switching and code mixing is on the using of two languages or more. But clearly, we can diferent it by looking the context. According to Wardhaugh (2006: 103), “Code mixing occurs when conversant use both of languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of single utterance.” It can be said that the languages that used on code switcing phenomenon still have each own autonomy function, doing by consciously with certain factors. While on code mixing, there is main code that has its own autonomy and function, while the other code just a piece without a function. While the different of code switching and interference lays in its reference. Code switching refers to the use of other language beside our mother language on communicating, and interference refers to the deviation of using another language on communicating as a fault. Still according to Chaer (2004: 124), “Interference adalah perubahan system suatu bahasa sehubungan dengan adanya persentuhan bahasa tersebut dengan unsure-unsur bahasa lain yang dilakukan oleh penutur yang bilingual.” In this research, it will be investigated more deeply about the phenomenon of code switching getting loose from the other phenomenon such as code mixing and interference. Someone may have the reason why they switch their mother language to the other language, in this case is Bahasa Indonesia into English. The type of code switching they used also may be variant. The type of code switching they used may depend on the reason or the factor of the code switching they have.
It is interesting to see how the code switching use by the bilinguals on their facebook comments is. The users may have reasons why they switch their Bahasa Indonesia into English when they write the comments. Then, the researcher is challenged to conduct a research about the code switching found in facebook comments. Then, the researcher explore it on a paper entitled “Code Switching on Facebook Comments (An Analysis of Types and Reasons of Code Switching Written by the 8th Semester Students of English Department)”

B.     Statement of Problems
The phenomenon of code switching has become an interesting topic to be discussed, especially code switching found in facebook comments. Since this social network appears at 2004, it has large members, and it may lead the members that are mostly teenagers, including the students of English Department as the learners of English as Foreign Language to begin imitating the way they communicate to each other. Getting loose from the reasons why they are choosing facebook to communicate one each other, in their daily day, they seems cannot stop to be exist on facebook. Most of them use facebook as media to communicate one to each other. They, who has Bahasa Indonesia as their first language and English as another language they study in depth, often switch their first language into English when they writing comments on facebook. This phenomenon called as Code Switching. Considering the phenomena of code switching doing by the Learners of English as Foreign Language, especially the students of English Department that broadly appears on facebook, this research is conducted to observe this phenomenon more deeply. This research specifically observes the code switching written by the 8th semester students of English Department of Adab and Humanity Faculty of Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung State Islamic University that joined together on Spartan Lovers Association (SLA) group on facebook.
So, the questions for the research are formulated as follows:
1.    What are the types of code switching written by the 8th semester students of English Department found in facebook comments?
2.    What are the possible reasons of the 8th semester students of English Department switch their Bahasa Indonesia into English on facebook comments?

C.    Purpose and Significance of Research
1.      Purpose of Research
There are two main purposes of this research, they are:
1.        To know what the type of code switching written by the 8th semester students of English Department found in facebook comments is.
2.        To recognize the possible reasons of the 8th semester students of English Department switch their Bahasa Indonesia into English on facebook comments.

2.      Significance of Research
The result of the research is expected to be used as one of the sources of information about the code switching on social networking facebook. This might be used as a reference for those who are interested in the subject of sosioliguistics. This research can be used as alternative for learning the development of language and its phenomenon. The researcher will describe the language and phenomenon, especially the code switching through the sociolinguistics theory.

D.      Conceptual Framework
According to Myres and Scotton (2006), the most general definition of codeswitching is this: the use of two language varieties in the same conversation. Code-switching can be distinguished from other language contact phenomena such as loan translation (calques), borrowing, pidgins and creoles, and transfer or interference. According to Hoffman (1991: 112), there are 5 types of code switching, there are:
1.        Emblematic
In this kind of code switching, tags and certain set phrases in one language are inserted into an utterance otherwise in another. For example:
Hurray!! Akhirnya akku menemukanmu kamu disini.
2.        Intra-sentential
This kind of code switching occurs within a clause or sentence boundary, as when an Indonesian/English bilingual says:
Subahanallah...... yang namanya parent mah always pray for all of you. Berharap all of you be success. That's way, belajarlah seriously.
3.      Intersentential
This kind of code switching occurs at a clause or sentence boundary, where each clause or sentence is in one language or the other, as when an English Departments student says:
Thank you, jempolers... what i meant, we need curriculum-based "link and match". Ya, kalau kebetulan litaracy-nya ngomongin menu mulu... bukan salah sekolah kalau anak jadi bisa masak. This last may also occur as speakers take turns.
4.        Establishing continuity with the previous speaker
This kind of code switching occurs to continue the utterance of the previous speaker, as when one Indonesian speaker speaks in English and then the other speaker tries to respond in English also. Yet, that speaker can also switch again to bahasa Indonesia. For instance:
 R1 : si pinky copas terus..haha
R2 : Hhahaaa... Lagii 'thinkless' maw...
R1 : thinkless do more..haha
R2 : thinkless pastemore! ;D
R1 : haha kreatip
5.         Involving a change of pronounciation
This kind of code switching occurs at the phonological level, as when Indonesian people say an English word, but modify it to Indonesian phonological structure. For instance, the word ‘strawberry’ is said to be ‘stroberi’ by Indonesian people.
Those are the type of code switching. The people surely also have reasons why he or she switches their native language into English. Here are the reasons for bilinguals to switch or mix their languages according to Hoffman (1991:116):
1.      Talking about a particular topic
People sometimes prefer to talk about a particular topic in one language rather than in another. Sometimes, a speaker feels free and more comfortable to express their emotional feelings in a language that is not their everyday language. 
2.  Quoting somebody else
People sometimes like to quote a famous expression or saying of some well-known figures. In Indonesian, those well-known figures are mostly from some English-speaking countries. Then, because many of the Indonesian people nowadays are good at English, those famous expressions or sayings can be quoted intact in their original language.
3.   Being emphatic about something
Usually, when someone who is talking using a language that is not his native tongue suddenly wants to be emphatic about something, he/she, either intentionally or unintentionally, will switch from his second language to his first language. Or, on the other hand, there are some cases where people feel more convenient to be emphatic in their second language rather than in their first language.
4.  Interjection (Inserting sentence fillers or sentence connectors)
Language switching and language mixing among bilingual or multilingual people can sometimes mark an interjection or sentence connector. It may happen unintentionally or intentionally.
5.  Repetition used for clarification
When a bilingual wants to clarify his/her speech so that it will be understood more by the listener, he/she can sometimes use both of the languages that he masters saying the same utterance (the utterance is said repeatedly).
6.  Intention of clarifying the speech content for interlocutor
When bilingual talks to another bilingual, there will be lots of code switching and code mixing occur. It means to make the content of his/her speech runs smoothly and can be understood by the hearer.
7.  Expressing group identity
Code switching and code mixing can also be used to express group identity. As it has been mentioned previously, the way of communication of academic people in their disciplinary groupings, are obviously different from other groups. In other words, the way of communication of one community is different from the people who are out of the community (Barnett, 1994: 7).

E.     Procedure of Research
This part presents the method of research, respondents, data resources, technique of data, and technique of data analysis. Each of them will be briefly described as follow:
1.      Method of Research
In conducting this qualitative research, the researcher will use descriptive method to describe the result of the research. The collected data in the form of member’s responses to questioners and also study of the books will be identified and classified into certain categories. And finally, the data will be presented based on the analysis related to the research questions. This is accordance with Lexy,
Bahwa penelitian kualitatif adalah penelitian yang bermaksud untuk memahmi fenomena tentang apa yang dialami oleh subjek penelitian. Misalnya perilaku persepsi, motivasi, tindakan, dll. Secara holistic. Dan dengan cara deskripsi dalam bentuk kata-kata dan bahasa, pada suatu konteks khusus yag alamiah dan dengan memanfaatkan berbagai metode alamiah” (1989:31).

2.      Data Resource
According to the Creswell (1994:148) qualitative data can be collected through document analysis or visual material. The main data for this research will be taken from Social Networking Facebook and Respondents.

2.1. The Social Networking Facebook
      The main data will be collected from Social Networking Facebook. Almost all of English Department Students are having facebook. Most of them connected one to each other by using facebook. There is also a group on facebook which overshadowed all English Department Students and the officials who are exist on facebook, this group also has a function as a forum to share all about English Department. In this group, the big family is gathering together. It make me easier to find out the data.

2.2. Respondents
Beside that, the data will be taken from taking a questioner with the respondents I choose. The respondent is the member of social networking facebook. They are about 20 English Department members who surely always exists on that social network and also know much about the language they used on their sentences. Those are in line with Patton’s argument (1990:70) that is cited by Maxwell “Purposeful sampling is strategy in which particular settings, persons, or events are selected deliberately in order to provide important information that can not be gotten as well from other choices.”
In line with statement above, the researcher should have an interaction with the subject who is going to be investigated in order to answer the research questions.

3.         Technique of Collecting Data
The data will be collected through questionnaire from the respondents and document analysis. The document analysis will be done by reading books that have relation with theory, methodology and the problems that being searched in this research. The researcher will find out the members’ ability and reason from the questionnaire. The members should answer some question given by the researcher.
According to Trott and Bloomer (1998:167) a questioner is a set of question on a topic or group of topics designed to be answered by a respondent. The researcher will be used an open questions. In addition, they (Trott and Bloomer) also said that question is open if it does not require a one word or curtailed answer. Instead, the respondents must create their own answers and state them in their own words. After getting the document to be analyzed and the transcript of the questioner, the researcher will find the reason why they used such code switching on their comments. The researcher will analyze those are.

4.      Sample of Data
Here are some data I’ve been collected from the social networking Facebook comments.
·           Dialogue 1:
A : switswiw,, tinggal sidang munakahat ya mas? cihuuuyyyy..
B : bukan war.. sidang lalulintas tadi abis beres... corat coret baju terus kebut2an keliling bandung... di tilang weh.. :P :P
A : ahahaha iya da baru lulus2an sma..
B : lhhhaaa c mas kan sweet seventeen.... :P :P
A : seems like sweet seventy.. :p
B : ‎.....
·           Dialogue 2
A : "pacyar nan jauh d mato... takana jo kakanda.."
B : muakan tanpa sambal tak madenda
A : asa teu nyambung.. wew akh :P
B : Wkwkwk. I'm not native in which language you're speaking :D
A : the jadul will not understand what the modern people (like me) said.. hhahaah... :D
B : woooow am i look so old? wow poor am i :( but that's ok. I still have my handsome face :P
·           Dialogue 3
A : Buat LSM atuh pa, yang bisa nyalurin bakat mereka. Ada kursusnya, penerjemahannya, advertisingnya, team penelitinya, perpustakaannya... Lari ke bisnis juga bisa kalau sudah kumpul mah, dari mulai agrobisnis, konveksi, kuliner... kayaknya teman-teman semua banyak deh potensinya.
B : satuju srg kg Erfan Thea... !! Otomatis bakat setiap org yang berbeda_beda itu keliatan.
A : Thank you, jempolers... what i meant, we need curriculum-based "link and match". Ya, kalau kebetulan litaracy-nya ngomongin menu mulu... bukan salah sekolah kalau anak jadi bisa masak.
B : iya atuh ach sok cepet direalisasikan spya lancar.. Xixixixi... Sy pendukung dr belakang y.. *__*
·         Dialogue 4
A : Ngejar deadline!
B : ‎????
A : mom ntar sya bimbingannnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn yah!
B : bolehhhhh
A : ok mom :) i'll send short message soon.
B :  pleasure,,,
·         Dialogue 5
A : si pinky copas terus..haha
B : Hhahaaa... Lagii 'thinkless' maw... :D
A : thinkless do more..haha
B :  thinkless pastemore! ;D
A :  haha kreatip!
There is so much other example of code switching found in facebook comments, the writer cannot tell it one by one.

5.      Technique of Data Analysis
Context analysis is a technique used to analyze the information gathered from examining the matter. The researcher will read and notes all information, so the researcher makes a question for questioning the respondents, to ask their reason switch Bahasa Indonesia into English on their sentences. The data could be sorted out and classified according to their relevance to answer the research problems. This qualitative research, therefore, is doing a descriptive method to answer the research of this case.
Then the steps to analyze the data are consisting of several points below:
a.       Getting to know all of aspect in the main object research. The main research in this case is Social Networking Facebook. Many people are curios about the code switching occur on the dialogue of members written on social network, such as on Social Networking Facebook.

b.      Identifying the entirety of data which refer to the theme. These identification are:
a.       The analysis of code switching occur in the dialogue of members on social network especially on facebook comments.
b.      The compatibility of the switching Bahasa Indonesia into English especially on facebook comments with the general code switching rule.
c.       The identification of the probable reasons why the facebook user switch their Bahasa Indonesia into English.
c.       Interpreting the whole data
d.      Finding conclusion will be taken from questioner.

F.     Clarification of Keywords
To avoid misunderstanding on terms used in this paper, the researcher clarifies some terms that used in this paper. The terms used in this paper are probably common. The terms that need to be clarified are:
·         Code Switching               :   Using two or more language in conversation.
·         Facebook Comments       : Words or sentences or paragraphs posted by facebookers as a response to what a facebooker have been written on his or her facebook. Comments is what the facebookers write on the comments column of facebook.
·         Types                               :  According to Bloom and Gumperz as cited by Jendra, There are three types of code switching based on grammatical classification, those are tag code-switching, inter-sentential code-switching, and intra-sentential code-switching. There are also two types of code switching based on the contextual classification, those are situational code-switching, and metaphorical code-switching.
·         Reason                             :  There are ten reasons for bilinguals to switch their first language into another language according to Grosjean as cited in Kim, those are for exclude or include someone from conversation, qualify message: amplify or emphasize, fill a linguistic need for lexical item set phrase, discourse marker, or sentence filler, continue the last language used, quote someone, specify addressee, change role of a speaker: raise status, add authority, show expertise, mark and emphasize group identity, specify speaker involvement, and convey confidentiality, anger, annoyance.
·         The 8th Semester of English Department: They are who on Mei 2011 still registered as the 8th semester student of English Department of Adab and Humanity Faculty of State Islamic University of Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung and became a member of Spartan Lovers Association (SLA) group on facebook.

G.    Model of Writing
This paper is organized into five chapters. The first chapter is introduction. This chapter will explain about the background of problem and the reason why it is chosen as the topic of research. This chapter also consists of problem statements, purpose and significance of the research, clarification of key terms and organization of writing.
The second chapter is the theoretical basis of code switching on facebook. This chapter contains literature that used as reference of the writer about the code switching found in facebook comments.
The third chapter is the methodology of research. In this chapter, it will be explained about method and technique that used by the writer to reach and evaluate the source. The writer will describe the steps of the research which will be doing by her. This chapter consists of research method, data resource, population and sample, technique of collecting and analysis data.
The next chapter is analysis of data. This chapter is explanation as analysis product of the data. The explanation is based on the problem statements and theories. This chapter includes the type of code switching written by the 8th semester students of English Department found in facebook comments and the reason of code switching written by the 8th semester students of English Department found in facebook comments.
The last chapter presents conclusion and recomendation. This chapter is the answer of the writer’s analysis of the problem. This final chapter is the writer’s view about the main of the research explanation.


Alwasilah, Chaedar. 1993. Lingusitik: Suatu Pengantar. Bandung: Angkasa.
Bloomfield, L. 1933. An Introduction to Language. Chicago: Holt Rinehart and Winston.
Chaer, Abdul. 2004. Sosiolinguistik: Perkenalan Awal. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Creswell, John. 1994. Research Design: Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches.  London: Sage Publication.
Gardner, Penelope. 2009. Code-Switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hoffman, Charlotte. 1991. An Introduction to Bilingualism. New York: Longman.
Myers, Carol and Scotton. 2006. Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Victoria: Blackwell Publishing.
Trott, Kate and Aileen Bloomer. 1998. Project in Linguistics: A Practical Guide to Researching Language. New York: Arnold.

notes : sebelum ACC final!


  1. Saya lagi cari buku Hoffman, Charlotte. 1991. An Introduction to Bilingualism. New York: Longman untuk skripsi, bisa bantu mbak?